KPI Warnng

KPI Warning space warning based upon the sun.
Real News KLW World News
KPI Warnings and Space Weather

Space Alert - KPI Warning

Auto generated by the network, the moment the KPI reaches 6 we will send out a warning. 

Often we get asked what is the KPI warning and more so what are the risks….what impact does it have on us here on earth. 

KPI Warning, what is it?

I is one of the many space warning items we analyse and provide you with a warning if we believe it is justified.

There are two indices that are used to determine the level of geomagnetic activity:

  • the A index and
  • the K index.

These give indications of the severity of the magnetic fluctuations and hence the disturbance to the ionosphere. The first of the two indices used to measure geomagnetic activity is the K index. The table below gives you an overview of the categorisation we use. 

Table 1

How do we know?

Each magnetic observatory calibrates its magnetometer so that its K index describes the same level of magnetic disturbance, no matter whether the observatory is located in the auroral regions or at the Earth’s equator. At three hourly intervals starting at 0000 UTC each day, the maximum deviations from the quiet day curve at a particular observatory are determined and the largest value is selected.

This value is then manipulated mathematically and the K index is calculated for that location. The K index is a “quasi logarithmic” number and as such cannot be averaged to give a longer-term view of the state of the  Earth’s magnetic field. And so can the A index, a daily average. At each 3- hour increment, the K index at an observatory is converted to an equivalent “a” index using Table 1, and the 8 a-index values are averaged to produce the A index for that day. It can vary up to values around 100.

During very severe geomagnetic storms it can reach values of up to 200 and very occasionally more. The A index reading varies from one observatory to the next since magnetic disturbances can be local.

To overcome this, the indices are averaged over the globe to provide the Ap index, the planetary value. Similarly, the Kp index is the planetary average of all the K indices at observatories around the globe.

Although geomagnetic and ionospheric storms are interrelated, it is worth noting that they are different. A geomagnetic storm is a disturbance of the Earth’s magnetic field and an ionospheric storm is a disturbance of the ionosphere.

So what does KLW World News use?

We get the file from NOAA, they make a file every 3 hrs that has the following information in it. We at the moment only take the KPI index and when the recording was made. 

  • ap index: A measure of the general level of geomagnetic activity over the globe for
    a given day. A mean, 3-hourly “equivalent amplitude” of magnetic activity based on
    K index data from 11 Northern and 2 Southern Hemisphere magnetic observatories
    between the geomagnetic latitudes of 46 and 63 degrees.
  • Ap index: A daily index determined from eight ap index values. Geomagnetic activity: Natural variations in the geomagnetic field classified into quiet, unsettled, active and geomagnetic storm levels. Geomagnetic storm: A worldwide disturbance of the Earth’s magnetic field, distinct from regular diurnal variations. A storm occurs when the Ap > 29, a minor storm when 29 < Ap < 50, a major storm when 50 <= Ap < 100 and a severe storm when Ap >= 100.
  • K indexA quasi-logarithmic local index of the 3-hourly range in magnetic activity relative to an assumed quiet-day curve for a single geomagnetic observatory site. First introduced by J. Bartels in 1938, it consists of a single-digit 0 through 9 for each 3-hour interval of the universal time day (UT).
  • Kp index— This is the value we are using for reporting. The planetary 3-hour-range index Kp is the mean standardized K-index from 13 geomagnetic observatories between 44 degrees and 60 degrees northern or southern geomagnetic latitude. The scale is 0 to 9 expressed in thirds of a unit; e.g., 5– is 42/3, 5 is 5 and 5+ is 51/3. This planetary index is designed to measure solar particle radiation by its magnetic. 

We group and report accordingly.

We have decided not to report on KP values below 6, they do not have a real impact on our day to day life. Reporting KPI every 3hrs might lead to Alarm fatigue. 

KP is 9 -> G5 Extreme

Power systems: widespread voltage control problems and protective systems problems can occur, some grid systems may experience complete collapse or blackouts. Transformers may experience damage.

Spacecraft operations: may experience extensive surface charging, problems with orientation, uplink1 downlink and tracking satellites.

Other systems: pipeline currents can reach hundreds of amps. HF (“high frequency’) radio propagation may be impossible in many areas for one to two days, satellite navigation may be degraded for days, low-frequency radio navigation can be out for hours, and aurora has been seen as low as Florida and southern Texas (typically 40° geomagnetic lat.).

Health-Risk Patients: Cardiac Coronary/Ventricular Dysfunction, Infarction, Arrhythmia, Stroke (think heart and blood pressure)

All Biological Life: Seizure, Migrain, Cognitive Diminution Risk is increased, Melanin and Light-Based Disorders.

Airline Passengers: Increased risk of all above-listed hazards. Radiation risk elevated. 

(Never base important decisions that could result in harm to people or property on this information. We do our best, but we are not medically qualified)

KP is 8 -> G4 Severe

Power systems: possible widespread voltage control problems and some protective systems will mistakenly trip, out key assets from the grid.

Spacecraft operations: may experience surface charging and tracking problems, corrections may be needed for orientation problems.

Other systems: induced pipeline currents affect preventive measures. HF radio propagation sporadic, satellite navigation degraded for hours, low-frequency radio navigation disrupted, and aurora has been seen as low as Alabama and northern California (typically 45° geomagnetic lat.).

Health-Risk Patients: Cardiac Coronary/Ventricular Dysfunction, Infarction, Arrhythmia, Stroke (think heart and blood pressure)

All Biological Life: Seizure, Migrain, Cognitive Diminution Risk is increased, Melanin and Light-Based Disorders.

Airline Passengers: Increased risk of all above-listed hazards. Radiation risk elevated. 

(Never base important decisions that could result in harm to people or property on this information. We do our best, but we are not medically qualified)

KP is 7 -> G3 Strong

Power systems: voltage corrections may be required, false alarms triggered by some protection devices.

Spacecraft operations: surface charging may occur on satellite components, drag may increase on low-Earth-orbit satellites, and corrections may be needed for orientation problems.,

Other systems: intermittent satellite navigation and low-frequency radio navigation problems may occur. HF radio may be intermittent, and aurora has been seen as low as Illinois and Oregon.

Health-Risk Patients: Cardiac Coronary/Ventricular Dysfunction, Infarction, Arrhythmia, Stroke (think heart and blood pressure)

All Biological Life: Seizure, Migrain, Cognitive Diminution Risk is increased, Melanin and Light-Based Disorders.

Airline Passengers: Increased risk of all above-listed hazards. 

(Never base important decisions that could result in harm to people or property on this information. We do our best, but we are not medically qualified)

 

KP is 6 -> G2 Moderate

Power systems: high-latitude power systems may experience voltage alarms, long-duration storms may cause transformer damage.

Spacecraft operations: corrective actions to orientation may be required by ground control: possible changes in drag affect orbit predictions.

Other systems: HF radio propagation can fade at higher latitudes, and aurora has been seen as low as New York.

KP is 5 -> G1 Moderate

Power systems: weak power grid fluctuations can occur.

Spacecraft operations: minor impact on satellite operations possible.

Other systems: migratory animals are affected at this and higher levels: aurora is commonly visible at high latitudes (northern Michigan and Maine).